A battery is able to supply electricity as a result of an electrochemical reaction that takes place inside it. As a battery is simply a combination of two or more cells, let’s find out the components of an electrochemical cell and see how the chemical reaction occurs.
The primary components of an electrochemical cell include a positive electrode, a negative electrode, and an electrolyte. A positive electrode is made from a metal that wants to lose electrons and the negative electrode is made from a metal that wants to gain electrons.
To facilitate this transfer of electrons (current), the two electrodes are dipped in an electrolyte and a circuit is completed by connecting the two electrodes through a load. The electrolyte allows the metals to breakdown into ions and electrons leading to the flow of electricity.
Generally, the negative electrode of a conventional lithium-ion cell is made from carbon. The positive electrode is typically a metal oxide. The electrolyte is a lithium salt in an organic solvent.
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