In a world where concerns about the environment are ever-growing, technological advancements are a beacon of hope. Experts at the KIST Jeonbuk Institute of Advanced Composition Materials and the Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST) have made a groundbreaking discovery that could revolutionize the lithium metal battery industry. By using carbon fiber paper as the anode material in lithium metal batteries, the team has achieved an unprecedented breakthrough that promises to increase EV battery capacity and charging times, leading to a more sustainable future.
Published in the prestigious Advanced Energy Materials journal, the study, ‘Construction of Hierarchical Surface on Carbon Fibre Paper for Lithium Metal Batteries with Superior Stability,’ could prove to be a game-changer in the EV industry. The new technology developed by the team at KIST and GIST could put an end to the major limitations of lithium metal batteries, paving the way for a greener future for transport.
Electric vehicle technology is undoubtedly the future, but the concerns about range capacity, battery life, and charging times have hindered its widespread adoption. Currently, lithium-ion batteries are the primary energy source for EVs, but they do not have the capacity to replace conventional fossil fuel-powered transport entirely. With battery packs ranging from 30kWh in entry-level models to 100kWh in more advanced EVs, the driving capacity of current EV models ranges from around 130 miles to over 350 miles. Although the average lifespan for an EV is at least a decade, EV driving range, capacity, and charging will need to improve to meet the daily demands of road users worldwide.
Enter the lithium metal battery, a promising candidate to replace conventional lithium-ion batteries, thanks to its lithium anode demonstrating ten times higher theoretical capacity than traditional graphite anodes. However, the development of lithium dendrites on the anodes during charging-discharging processes has been a major challenge, leading to poor performance and short-circuiting. The team’s carbon fiber paper innovation provides a solution to these issues, ensuring that lithium metal batteries are a viable alternative to conventional batteries.
During their investigation, the researchers replaced a lithium metal-coated copper thin film with a carbon fiber paper containing lithium metal. The carbon fiber paper’s hierarchical structure contained amorphous carbon and inorganic nanoparticles, which boosted the lithium affinity and stopped the formation of dendrites. The results were impressive, with the copper thin film anode short-circuiting after approximately 100 cycles, while the carbon fiber paper anode exhibited outstanding cycling stability for 300 cycles. Additionally, it demonstrated a high energy density of 428 Wh/kg compared to the 240 Wh/kg of the copper thin film. The manufacturing process is also much easier, as the molten lithium can be easily infused into carbon fiber paper.
In conclusion, the breakthrough by the team at KIST and GIST promises to take lithium metal batteries to new heights, providing a viable and sustainable solution for the transport sector’s decarbonization. With the potential to overcome the limitations of EV technology, the carbon fiber paper innovation is a step forward in the journey towards a greener future.